What is the MERN stack?
MERN stands for MongoDB, Express, React, Node, after the four key technologies that make up the stack.
- MongoDB — document database
- Express(.js) — Node.js web framework
How does the MERN stack work?
React.js front end
React’s strong suit is handling stateful, data-driven interfaces with minimal code and minimal pain, and it has all the bells and whistles you’d expect from a modern web framework: great support for forms, error handling, events, lists, and more.
Express.js and Node.js server tier
The next level down is the Express.js server-side framework, running inside a Node.js server. Express.js bills itself as a “fast, unopinionated, minimalist web framework for Node.js,” and that is indeed exactly what it is. Express.js has powerful models for URL routing (matching an incoming URL with a server function), and handling HTTP requests and responses.
By making XML HTTP Requests (XHRs) or GETs or POSTs from your React.js front end, you can connect to Express.js functions that power your application. Those functions, in turn, use MongoDB’s Node.js drivers, either via callbacks or using promises, to access and update data in your MongoDB database.
MongoDB database tier
If your application stores any data (user profiles, content, comments, uploads, events, etc.), then you’re going to want a database that’s just as easy to work with as React, Express, and Node.
That’s where MongoDB comes in: JSON documents created in your React.js front end can be sent to the Express.js server, where they can be processed and (assuming they’re valid) stored directly in MongoDB for later retrieval. Again, if you’re building in the cloud, you’ll want to look at Atlas. If you’re looking to set up your own MERN stack, read on!
Is MERN a full-stack solution?
Yes, MERN is a full stack, following the traditional three-tier architectural pattern, including the front-end display tier (React.js), application tier (Express.js and Node.js), and database tier (MongoDB).
Why choose the MERN stack?
MongoDB works extremely well with Node.js, and makes storing, manipulating, and representing JSON data at every tier of your application incredibly easy. For cloud-native applications, MongoDB Atlas makes it even easier, by giving you an auto-scaling MongoDB cluster on the cloud provider of your choice, as easy as a few button clicks.
The combination means that JSON data flows naturally from front to back, making it fast to build on and reasonably simple to debug. Plus, you only have to know one programming language, and the JSON document structure, to understand the whole system!
MERN is the stack of choice for today’s web developers looking to move quickly, particularly for those with React.js experience.
MERN use cases
Like any web stack, you can build whatever you want in MERN — though it’s ideally suited for cases that are JSON-heavy, cloud-native, and that have dynamic web interfaces.
Examples include workflow management, news aggregation, to-do apps and calendars, and interactive forums/social products — and whatever else you can dream up!